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Acid-base: comparative table

Table to compare acid-base theories.

The following table shows the different acid-base theories:

Acid-base theory
Definition of acid
Example of acid
Definition of base
Example of base
Arrhenius
A species that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, H⁺, in an aqueous solution.
The H⁺ ions react immediately with the
H₂O to form oxidanium ions (H₃O⁺).
HCl(ac)→H+(ac)+Cl-(ac)
A species that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH-, in an aqueous solution.
NaOH(ac)→Na+(ac)→OH

(ac)
Brønsted-Lowry
Proton-donating species, H⁺.
*Water is defined as an amphoteric substance since it can act as an acid or a base.
*Conjugated acid is the species formed when a Brønsted-Lowry base accepts a proton.
NH3(g)+HCl(g) →NH4Cl(s)
* It is also expressed as

* Conjugated acid
A species that accepts a proton, which requires a lone pair of electrons to bond to H+.
*Conjugate base is the species formed after a Brønsted-Lowry acid gives up a proton.
NH3(ac)+H2O(l⇌NH4+(ac)+OH-(ac)
*Conjugate base
OH-(ac)
Lewis
Species that accepts and shares
a pair of electrons yielded by a base.
Acid + Base → adduct
H++ :NH3
A species that gives up a pair of electrons and shares them with an acid.
Acid + Base → adduct

Examples of acid-base reactions according to different theories.

Reaction
Arrhenius
Brønsted-Lowry
Lewis
Comment
HCl + NaOH → NaCl +H2O
Acid + Base → Salt + Water

HCl + NaOH → NaCl +H2O

Acid + BaseBase conj. + Acid conj.

HCl + NaOHNaCl + H2O

Acid + Base → adduct

HCl + NaOH → NaCl +H2O

H2PO4-+ HCl → H3PO4 + Cl-
Not applicable
Acid + BaseAcid conj. + Base conj.

H2PO4- + HClH3PO4 + Cl-

Acid + Base → adduct

H2PO4- + HCl → H3PO4 + Cl-

* The Arrhenius theory does not apply because an OH ion is necessary for the definition.
AlCl3 + NH3 → [Al(NH3)Cl3].
Not Applicable
Not applicable
Acid + Base → adduct

AlCl3 + NH3 → [Al(NH3)Cl3].

* All
Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases
are Lewis acids and bases, but not all Lewis acids and bases are Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases.

 

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