Organic pollutants

What are the organic compounds?

These are all the compounds that contain a “CHONX” composition and structure. They are highly covalent compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenates hydrocarbons, sulfur hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, etc.

There are compounds of natural origin (sugars, proteins, alcohols, etc.) that are synthesized in the cells of living organisms. There are also organic compounds that are formed in natural chemical processes such as oil and raw carbon.

Organic chemicals can also be synthesized in laboratories and chemical companies. A growing number of these synthetic organic compounds are being produces. These can include pesticides used in agriculture, plastics, synthetic fabrics, dyes, gasoline additives such as MTBE, solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, and many other chemicals. Some synthetic organic chemicals, such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and vinyl chloride, evaporate easily into the air and are grouped under the category of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common synthetic organic chemical used for several years as a gasoline additive.

How to treat water for organic matter retention?

The following table shows, according to NOM-127-SSA1-1994, the maximum permissible limits of organic compounds reported in the standard.

Organic compound
Value
Units
Treatment
Phenols or phenolic compounds
0.001
mg / l
Adsorption with activated carbon (AC) or oxidation with ozone.
Pesticides: Aldrin and dieldrin (separately or combined)
0.03
µg / l
Adsorption with granular activated carbon (GAC).
Chlordane (total isomers)
0.30
mg / l
Oxidation-filtration or adsorption with AC.
DDT (total isomers)
1.00
mg / l
Oxidation-filtration or adsorption with AC.
Gamma-HCH (lindane)
2.00
mg / l
Oxidation-filtration or adsorption with AC.
Hexachlorobenzene
0.01
mg / l
Oxidation-filtration or adsorption with AC.
Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide
0.03
mg / l
Oxidation-filtration or adsorption with AC.
Methoxychlorine
20.00
mg / l
Oxidation-filtration or adsorption with AC.
Methylene blue active substances (MEAS)
0.50
mg / l
Adsorption with activated carbon.
Total Trihalomethanes
0.20
mg / l
Aeration or oxidation with ozone and adsorption in granular activated carbon.
Total coliform organisms
2.00
NMP / 100 ml
Disinfection with chloride, chloride compounds, ozone or UV light.

There are compounds called "emerging", which have the characteristic of not being completely studied to establish a maximum permissible limit in this standard, some examples of these compounds are: drugs, hormones, drugs of abuse, personal hygiene products, etc. A great advantage of these compounds when removing them from a water source is that they have a high affinity with activated carbon, this is because most of these compounds are highly covalent and the carbon adsorbs this type of compounds very efficiently. Due to this characteristic, adsorption with activated carbon is usually one of the best options for the treatment of these organic compounds.

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